Economies won’t be able to recover after shutdowns

Citizens seem to be clamoring for shutdowns to prevent the spread of COVID-19. There is one major difficulty, however. Once an economy has been shut down, it is extremely difficult for the economy to recover back to the level it had reached previously. In fact, the longer the shutdown lasts, the more critical the problem is likely to be. China can shut down its economy for two weeks over the Chinese New Year, each year, without much damage. But, if the outage is longer and more widespread, damaging effects are likely.

A major reason why economies around the world will have difficulty restarting is because the world economy was in very poor shape before COVID-19 hit; shutting down major parts of the economy for a time leads to even more people with low wages or without any job. It will be very difficult and time-consuming to replace the failed businesses that provided these jobs.

When an outbreak of COVID-19 hit, epidemiologists recommended social distancing approaches that seemed to be helpful back in 1918-1919. The issue, however, is that the world economy has changed. Social distancing rules have a much more adverse impact on today’s economy than on the economy of 100 years ago.

Governments that wanted to push back found themselves up against a wall of citizen expectations. A common belief, even among economists, was that any shutdown would be short, and the recovery would be V-shaped. False information (really propaganda) published by China tended to reinforce the expectation that shutdowns could truly be helpful. But if we look at the real situation, Chinese workers are finding themselves newly laid off as they attempt to return to work. This is leading to protests in the Hubei area.

My analysis indicates that now, in 2020, the world economy cannot withstand long shutdowns. One very serious problem is the fact that the prices of many commodities (including oil, copper and lithium) will fall far too low for producers, leading to disruption in supplies. Broken supply chains can be expected to lead to the loss of many products previously available. Ultimately, the world economy may be headed for collapse.

In this post, I explain some of the reasons for my concerns.

[1] An economy is a self-organizing system that can grow only under the right conditions. Removing a large number of businesses and the corresponding jobs for an extended shutdown will clearly have a detrimental effect on the economy. 

Figure 1. Chart by author, using photo of building toy “Leonardo Sticks,” with notes showing a few types of elements the world economy.

An economy is a self-organizing networked system that grows, under the right circumstances. I have attempted to give an idea of how this happens in Figure 1. This is an image of a child’s building toy. The growth of an economy is somewhat like building a structure with many layers using such a toy.

The precise makeup of the economy is constantly changing. New businesses are formed, and new consumers grow up and take jobs. Governments enact laws, partly to collect taxes, and partly to ensure fair treatment of all. Consumers decide which products to buy based on a combination of factors, including their level of wages, the prices being charged for the available goods, the availability of debt, and the interest rate on that debt. Resources of various kinds are used in producing goods and services.

At the same time, some deletions are taking place. Big businesses buy smaller businesses; some customers die or move away. Products that become obsolete are discontinued. The inside of the dome becomes hollow from the deletions.

If a large number of businesses are closed for an extended period, this will have many adverse impacts on the economy:

  • Fewer goods and services, in total, will be made for the economy during the period of the shutdown.
  • Many workers will be laid off, either temporarily or permanently. Goods and services will suddenly be less affordable for these former workers. Many will fall behind on their rent and other obligations.
  • The laid off workers will be unable to pay much in taxes. In the US, state and local governments will need to cut back the size of their programs to match lower revenue because they cannot borrow to offset the deficit.
  • If fewer goods and services are made, demand for commodities will fall. This will push the prices of commodities, such as oil and copper, very low.
  • Commodity producers, airlines and the travel industry are likely to head toward permanent contraction, further adding to layoffs.
  • Broken supply lines become problems. For example:
    • A lack of parts from China has led to the closing of many automobile factories around the world.
    • There is not enough cargo capacity on airplanes because much cargo was carried on passenger flights previously, and passenger flights have been cut back.

These adverse impacts become increasingly destabilizing for the economy, the longer the shutdowns go on. It is as if a huge number of deletions are made simultaneously in Figure 1. Temporary margins, such as storage of spare parts in warehouses, can provide only a temporary buffer. The remaining portions of the economy become less and less able to support themselves. If the economy was already in poor shape, the economy may collapse.

[2] The world economy was approaching resource limits even before the coronavirus epidemic appeared. This is not too different a situation than many earlier economies faced before they collapsed. Coronavirus pushes the world economy further toward collapse. 

Reaching resource limits is sometimes described as, “The population outgrew the carrying capacity of the land.” The group of people living in the area could not grow enough food and firewood using the resources available at the time (such as arable land, energy from the sun, draft animals, and technology of the day) for their expanding populations.

Collapses have been studied by many researchers. The book Secular Cycles by Peter Turchin and Sergey Nefedov analyze eight agricultural economies that collapsed. Figure 2 is a chart I prepared, based on my analysis of the economies described in that book:

Figure 2. Chart by author based on Turchin and Nefedov’s Secular Cycles.

Economies tend to grow for many years before the population becomes high enough that the carrying capacity of the land they occupy is approached. Once the carrying capacity is hit, they enter a stagflation stage, during which population and GDP growth slow. Growing debt becomes an issue, as do both wage and wealth disparity.

Eventually, a crisis period is reached. The problems of the stagflation period become worse (wage and wealth disparity; need for debt by those with inadequate income) during the crisis period. Changes tend to take place during the crisis period that lead to substantial drops in GDP and population. For example, we read about some economies entering into wars during the crisis period in the attempt to gain more land and other resources. We also read about economies being attacked from outside in their weakened state.

Also, during the crisis period, with the high level of wage and wealth disparity, it becomes increasingly difficult for governments to collect enough taxes. This problem can lead to governments being overthrown because of unhappiness with high taxes and wage disparity. In some cases, as in the 1991 collapse of the central government of the Soviet Union, the top level government simply collapses, leaving the next lower level of government.

Strangely enough, epidemics also seem to occur within collapse periods. The rising population leads to people living closer to each other, increasing the risk of transmission. People with low wages often find it increasingly difficult to eat an adequate diet. As a result, their immune systems easily succumb to new communicable diseases. Part of the collapse process is often the loss of a significant share of the population to a communicable disease.

Looking back at Figure 2, I believe that the current economic cycle started with the use of fossil fuels back in the 1800s. The world economy hit the stagflation period in the 1970s, when oil supply first became constrained. The Great Recession of 2008-2009 seems to be a marker for the beginning of the crisis period in the current cycle. If I am right in this assessment, the world economy is in the period in which we should expect crises, such as pandemics or wars, to occur.

The world was already pushing up against resource limits before all of the shutdowns took place. The shutdowns can be expected to push the world economy toward a more rapid decline in output per capita. They also appear to increase the likelihood that citizens will try to overthrow their governments, once the quarantine restrictions are removed.

[3] The carrying capacity of the world today is augmented by the world’s energy supply. A major issue since 2014 is that oil prices have been too low for oil producers. The coronavirus problem is pushing oil prices even lower yet.

Strangely enough, the world economy is facing a resource shortage problem, but it manifests itself as low commodity prices and excessive wage and wealth disparity.

Most economists have not figured out that economies are, in physics terms, dissipative structures. These are self-organizing systems that grow, at least for a time. Hurricanes (powered by energy from warm water) and ecosystems (powered by sunlight) are other examples of dissipative structures. Humans are dissipative structures, as well; we are powered by the energy content of foods. Economies require energy for all of the processes that we associate with generating GDP, such as refining metals and transporting goods. Electricity is a form of energy.

Energy can be used to work around shortages of almost any kind of resource. For example, if fresh water is a problem, energy products can be used to build desalination plants. If lack of phosphate rocks is an issue for adequate fertilization, energy products can be used to extract these rocks from less accessible locations. If pollution is a problem, fossil fuels can be used to build so-called renewable energy devices such as wind turbines and solar panels, to try to reduce future CO2 pollution.

The growth in energy consumption correlates quite well with the growth of the world economy. In fact, increases in energy consumption seem to precede growth in GDP, suggesting that it is energy consumption growth that allows the growth of GDP.

Figure 3. World GDP Growth versus Energy Consumption Growth, based on data of 2018 BP Statistical Review of World Energy and GDP data in 2010$ amounts, from the World Bank.

The thing that economists tend to miss is the fact that extracting enough fossil fuels (or commodities of any type) is a two-sided price problem. Prices must be both:

  1. High enough for companies extracting the resources to make an after tax profit.
  2. Low enough for consumers to afford finished goods made with these resources.

Most economists believe that an inadequate supply of energy products will be marked by high prices. In fact, the situation seems to be almost “upside down” in a networked economy. Inadequate energy supplies seem to be marked by excessive wage and wealth disparity. This wage and wealth disparity leads to commodity prices that are too low for producers. Current WTI oil prices are about $20 per barrel, for example (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Daily spot price of West Texas Intermediate oil, based on EIA data.

The low-price commodity price issue is really an affordability problem. The many people with low wages cannot afford goods such as cars, homes with heating and air conditioning, and vacation travel. In fact, they may even have difficulty affording food. Spending by rich people does not make up for the shortfall in spending by the poor because the rich tend to spend their wealth differently. They tend to buy services such as tax planning and expensive private college educations for their children. These services require proportionately less commodity use than goods purchased by the poor.

The problem of low commodity prices becomes especially acute in countries that produce commodities for export. Producers find it difficult to pay workers adequate wages to live on. Also, governments are not able to collect enough taxes for the services workers expect, such as public transit. The combination is likely to lead to protests by citizens whenever the opportunity arises. Once shutdowns end, these countries are especially in danger of having their governments overthrown.

[4] There are limits to what governments and central banks can fix. 

Governments can give citizens checks so that they have enough funds to buy groceries. This may, indeed, keep the price of food products high enough for food producers. There may still be problems with broken supply lines, so there may still be shortages of some products. For example, if there are eggs but no egg cartons, there may be no eggs for sale in grocery stores.

Central banks can act as buyers for many kinds of assets such as bonds and even shares of stock. In this way, they can perhaps keep stock market prices reasonably high. If enough gimmicks are used, perhaps they can even keep the prices of homes and farms reasonably high.

Central banks can also keep interest rates paid by governments low. In fact, interest rates can even be negative, especially for the short term. Businesses whose profitability has been reduced and workers who have been laid off are likely to discover that their credit ratings have been downgraded. This is likely to lead to higher interest costs for these borrowers, even if interest rates for the most creditworthy are kept low.

One area where governments and central banks seem to be fairly helpless is with respect to low prices for commodities used by industry, such as oil, natural gas, coal, copper and lithium. These commodities are traded internationally, so it is not just their own producers that need to be propped up; the market intervention needs to affect the entire world market.

One approach to raising world commodity prices would be to buy up large quantities of the commodities and store them somewhere. This is impractical, because no one has adequate storage for the huge quantities involved.

Another approach for raising world commodity prices would be to try to raise worldwide demand for finished goods and services. (Making more finished goods and services will use more commodities, and thus will tend to raise commodity prices.) To do this, checks would somehow need to go to the many poor people in the world, including those in India, Bangladesh and Nigeria, allowing these people to buy cars, homes, and other finished goods. Sending out checks only to people in one’s own economy would not be sufficient. It is unlikely that the US or the European Union would undertake a task such as this.

A major problem after many people have been out of work for a quite a while is the fact that many of these people will be behind on their regular payments, such as rent and car payments. They will be in no mood to buy a new vehicle or a new cell phone, simply because they have been offered a check that covers groceries and not much more. They will remain in a mode of cutting back on purchases, not adding more. Demand for most kinds of goods will remain low.

This lack of demand will make it difficult for business to have enough sales to make it profitable to reopen at the level of output that they had previously. Thus, employment and sales are likely to remain depressed even after the economy seems to be reopening. China seems to be having this problem. The Wall Street Journal reports China Is Open for Business, but the Postcoronavirus Reboot Looks Slow and Rocky. It also reports, Another Shortage in China’s Virus-Hit Economy: Jobs for College Grads.

[5] There is a significant likelihood that the COVID-19 problem is not going away, even if economies can “bend the trend line” with respect to new cases.

Bending the trend line has to do with trying to keep hospitals and medical providers from being overwhelmed. It is likely to mean that herd immunity is built up slowly, making repeat outbreaks more likely. Thus, if social isolation is stopped, COVID-19 illnesses can be expected to revisit prior locations. We know that this has been an issue in the past. The Spanish Flu epidemic came in three waves, over the years 1918-1919. The second wave was the most deadly.

A recent study by members of the Harvard School of Public Health says that the COVID-19 epidemic may appear in waves until into 2022. In fact, it could be back on a seasonal basis thereafter. It also indicates that more than one period of social distancing is likely to be required:

“A single period of social distancing will not be sufficient to prevent critical care capacities from being overwhelmed by the COVID-19 epidemic, because under any scenario considered it leaves enough of the population susceptible that a rebound in transmission after the end of the period will lead to an epidemic that exceeds this capacity.”

Thus, even if the COVID-19 problem seems to be fixed in a few weeks, it likely will be back again within a few months. With this level of uncertainty, businesses will not be willing to set up new operations. They will not hire many additional employees. The retired population will not run out and buy more tickets on cruise ships for next year. In fact, citizens are likely to continue to be worried about airplane flights being a place for transmitting illnesses, making the longer term prospects for the airline industry less optimistic.

Conclusion 

The economy was already near the edge before COVID-19 hit. Wage and wealth disparity were big problems. Local populations of many areas objected to immigrants, fearing that the added population would reduce job opportunities for people who already lived there, among other things. As a result, many areas were experiencing protests because of unhappiness with the current economic situation.

The shutdowns temporarily cut back the protests, but they certainly do not fix the underlying situations. Instead, the shutdowns add to the number of people with very low wages or no income at all. The shutdowns also reduce the total quantity of goods and services available to purchase, regardless of how much money is added to the system. Many people will end up poorer, in some real sense.

As soon as the shutdowns end, it will be obvious that the world economy is in worse condition than it was before the shutdown. The longer the shutdowns last, the worse shape the world economy will be in. Thus, when businesses are restarted, we can expect even more protests and more divisive politics. Some governments may be overthrown, or they may collapse without being pushed. I fear that the world economy will be further down the road toward overall collapse.

 

 

 

About Gail Tverberg

My name is Gail Tverberg. I am an actuary interested in finite world issues - oil depletion, natural gas depletion, water shortages, and climate change. Oil limits look very different from what most expect, with high prices leading to recession, and low prices leading to financial problems for oil producers and for oil exporting countries. We are really dealing with a physics problem that affects many parts of the economy at once, including wages and the financial system. I try to look at the overall problem.
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4,744 Responses to Economies won’t be able to recover after shutdowns

  1. Fast Eddy says:

    THE MAGIC SPACE SUITS

    In addition to providing radiation protection that today’s technology is unable to match, and a climate control system that is beyond anything available in the twenty-first century, the magic suits also provided the astronauts with breathable air, which definitely came in handy.

    What the suits did, in essence, was provide the astronauts with their own little portable, climate-controlled, radiation-protected atmosphere.

    Of course, to actually do that (if we’re pretending that it could be done at all), the suits would have had to have been pressurized.

    And it is perfectly obvious from all the photos that the suits were not, in fact, pressurized, because if they were, the astronauts would have looked like the Michelin Man bouncing around on the surface of the Moon.

    The magic suits had to perform one other function as well: they had to serve as head-to-toe body armor. Because the Moon, according to NASA, has a serious problem with drive-by shootings from outer space. Seriously. I’m not making that up. I read it on NASA’s own website.

    In the very same NASA post that discusses Moon rocks being constantly bombarded with absurdly high levels of radiation, another curious admission can be found: “meteoroids constantly bombard the Moon.”

    Our old friend from NASA, David McKay, explains that “Apollo moon rocks are peppered with tiny craters from meteoroid impacts.” NASA then explains that that “could only happen to rocks from a planet with little or no atmosphere … like the Moon.”

    “Meteoroids,” NASA continues, “are nearly-microscopic specks of space dust that fly through space at speeds often exceeding 50,000 mph – ten times faster than a speeding bullet. They pack a considerable punch … The tiny space bullets can plow directly into Moon rocks, forming miniature and unmistakable craters.”

    According to NASA, every square inch of every exposed surface of every rock allegedly gathered from the surface of the Moon shows this pattern. By extension then, we know that every square inch of the lunar surface is peppered with meteoroid craters.

    There really is no safe place to hang out. There you are minding your own business lining up your golf shot, and the next thing you know a meteoroid is ripping through your spacesuit at 50,000 mph. That has to sting a little bit.

    Read… BOOM! PUNCHLINE:

    Actually, what it would do is kill you. Almost instantaneously.

    Not the projectile itself, which probably wouldn’t be lethal after passing through the spacesuit, but ripping or puncturing your magic suit while on the Moon is certainly something that you would want to avoid.

    You know that old saw about how “nature abhors a vacuum”? How that applies here is that any penetration in your suit would result in all the air being immediately sucked out. And then your blood would begin to boil. And that can be rather unpleasant.

    Essay Five is actually the funniest one so far http://centerforaninformedamerica.com/moondoggie-5/

    • “And it is perfectly obvious from all the photos that the suits were not, in fact, pressurized, because if they were, the astronauts would have looked like the Michelin Man bouncing around on the surface of the Moon.”

      Ummm… they did look just like that.

      • Tim Groves says:

        Ummm… In this vid, you can see the flag moving. Obviously it’s fluttering in the solar wind.

        Also, if you play it backwards in slow motion, you can distinctly hear the words, “NASA Loves Satan.”

  2. Yoshua says:

    OPEC + meeting today

    EIA
    Crude: 15.177M
    Cushing: 6.417M
    Gasoline: 10.497M
    Distillates: 0.476M

    • WTI is up 1.28% to 25.38. There was a spike, just as the agreement was announced, but it dropped back as people read the details.

      The WSJ reports, Saudi Arabia, Russia Bury Oil Differences, Agree on Big Output Cuts

      For Saudi Arabia, the output curbs will involve removing 4 million barrels a day from its April production levels, while Russia has agreed to cut 2 million barrels a day. . .

      So far in the negotiations, Iraq and others in the group have yet to agree on the amount their countries would cut. . .

      The muted market reaction came in that context.

  3. Harry McGibbs says:

    “A total of 81% of the global workforce of 3.3 billion people have had their workplace fully or partly closed.

    “Restrictions on daily life have led to the closure of many companies and the laying off of staff – either permanently or temporarily.”

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-52199888

    • Harry McGibbs says:

      “The St Louis Fed predicts potential job losses of over 46m for 2020. This would translate to a 32.1% unemployment rate, which would be the highest ever.

      “Currently, the peak stands at 24.9%, which occurred in 1933 during the Great Depression.””

      https://www.fxstreet.com/news/us-unemployment-rate-could-be-the-highest-ever-anz-202004080839

    • Fast Eddy says:

      I don’t give a damn!!!! Lock er Down Boys!!! Cuz if we unlock we’ll see 40 billion infections and 3 billion hospitalizations and 12 billion deaths!!! I say keep er locked down hard — shoot to kill!

      But Fast you’ve got your numbers all mixed up…

      Numbers? What numbers… numbers don’t matter didja not hear me the first time — lock er down shoot to kill … we gots no choice

      But Fast can you not see that locking down for much longer will cause the global economy to collapse and billions will starve and die

      What’s wrong you? What don’t you git…. if we don’t lock er down tight 17 billion people are gonna die…. that’s guaranteed…. CNN said that …. I ain’t gonna go by yer ridiculous numbers … CNN NYT… that’s real news … not this f ake stuff yer trying to peddle to me….

      Lock er Down — I dun wanna hear your crazy talk no more buddy …. your just plain crazy and you’ll git us all killed with that crazy talk a yers….. Lock er Down ….. Lock er Down…..

      Flatten the curve…. We’re all in this together … I gotta go now so you be sure to stay safe… and make sure ya lock down and doant come outta there — I will not hesitate to shoot ya dead now….

    • How will this ever work???

  4. Fast Eddy says:

    Re that video Tim posted — I just called Elmherst …. there is definitely no Dr Colleen Smith working there… I asked the lady to double check. No sir nobody by that name.

    My next question is how many Covid patients are there — she passed me to ER — the guy said he’s not on that side of the ER but there are some people with symptoms on the other side

    He asked if I had symptoms … I said ya bit of an ache — and a sore brain from dealing with meat heads all day long at the OFW office (haha he liked that)…. but I don’t want to come down there cuz I don’t want to wait forever as I saw huge queues on the news…

    Oh no nothing like that … you won’t have to wait long …. ah so it’s like normal — ya pretty much — although I cannot see what’s going on over there now….

    But it was busy last week — it’s calmed down a lot…. ah right I said …. but next week I am sure it will be busier he said — I said oh ya … next week… I’d ask you for the score in the Rangers playoff game next week but the NHL isn’t playing…. hahaha — you a Rangers fan he asked… Ya I like them and the Habs…

    Anyway … thanks bud … I am sure this is nothing but if I start to feel worse I might see you down there later …

    Ok you take care. You too. Click.

    So no Colleen Smith …. odd….

    And last week it was busy — no doubt lots of ‘sick’ people there for the photo shoot (If you look at the other video there were maybe a dozen people with masks milling around outside)….

    But HANG the Fooookkkkk on…. how has the patient volume REDUCED back to normal??????

    I thought this was ‘outta control’….. getting worse every day?????

    And also the patient loads would be cumulative as in some of those people who came in last week surely must have been sick enough to still be there this week…..

    Oh look what I just filmed passing by the Goat Ranch …. and then there was a massive explosion 2km up the road …

    Good thing I am a tech wizard and I vpn’ed to my neighbours IP to make that call…. (well kinda bad for him I guess… better than starving though huh?)

    Give it about an hour and you’ll be able to get the details here https://www.rnz.co.nz/

    I may wander down there before the police come and see if there’s any good stuff to loot… ah I mean salvage…. I’ll take some pics

  5. Harry McGibbs says:

    “Federal Reserve officials feared a sharp decline in economic and market conditions last month as they began injecting a heavy dose of monetary stimulus to limit the fallout from the coronavirus pandemic…

    “Officials at the Fed were also grappling with little clarity on when economic conditions might improve.”

    https://www.ft.com/content/d2977690-7969-4482-8f12-dc6a37fc7c3e

  6. Harry McGibbs says:

    “The IMF made a dire warning six months ago: A slowdown half as severe as the 2008 collapse could put some $19 trillion of debt at risk, according to the organization’s financial stability report.

    “Heavy corporate indebtedness could exacerbate the next downturn, the IMF said, leading to higher unemployment, and cause banks to pull back from lending.”

    https://qz.com/1833565/some-are-calling-for-a-junk-bond-leveraged-loan-bailout/

  7. Marco Bruciati says:

    We have right now a big inflaction but we dont feel because of oil price Is true?

    • There is no significant inflation (in essentials) for the moment, it might spike up when the real stimulus goes into force (multi-month or permanent non conditioned UBI) or when moneyed people panic out of bonds, equities, queer art, silly urban condos .. into food-land instead. We are not there yet, and it might come only in the next GFC_ver3 several years down the road anyway..

    • Food prices are often local. They can be rising, even as other prices, including oil prices, are very low.

  8. Fast Eddy says:

    No crater from the jet thrusters — no dust anywhere on the contraption – spotless … like a crane placed it there…..

    Odd – since the moon is not made of concrete …

    • matm1211 says:

      If you blow dust under your feet, well you have no dust below your feet anymore. However 1 meter away you have more dust… It is especially easy to blow dust away under low g…

    • JesseJames says:

      Enquiring minds do wonder why, in an airless environment, the dust is not completely uniform and flat. Supposedly the dust is created by gigantic meteors (and t8ny ones) bombarding the surface. There is no air to blow it around, no animals to disturb it. Why then are there bumps and undulations. At worst, it should be gently varying with the underlying contours. The picture is as fake as can be.

      • matm1211 says:

        Well the dust is not on a flat floor… it just lay on a ground that is nonuniform. Plus the dust is made of particles from micron size to rocks of a centimeter size. I supposed this is what you see as bump on the pictures, centimeters size rocks.

        • JesseJames says:

          The spatial frequency of the dust undulations would be a result of filtering the spatial frequency of the underlying strata. Included in the calculation would be the depth of the dust layer. The deeper the layer, then the less effect on the spatial variation on of the top surface. The human eye is an excellent discriminator of spatial frequency. Look at the depth of the footprint. The variations on the surface should absolutely not be present.

          • matm1211 says:

            Jesse, you are assuming that dust on the moon is mostly made of very small particles (micron size), then you are argument is all right. But I am not sure that moon dust is mostly made of very small particles… I don’t know the distribution, might be Gaussian with a mean in the few centimeters size, then you’re argument does not work.

    • Well, there appears to be some dust on the landing skids, pic here:
      https://tinyurl.com/u9yzsfp

      • This is getting ridiculous..

        Did Lenin mooned NASA-Hollywood after-all? The second rover mission shows close-up camera shoot of honorary badge of Lenin(?) in front of the extended leg for landing skid, which is obviously covered in dust.

        Recap, even the first rover mission, linked previously, shows dusted landing skids of the platform from different angle.

        Lunokhod 2. Lunation 1. Session 1. Panorama 1+2:
        http://www.planetology.ru/panoramas/lunokhod2.php?page=0&language=english

        Lunokhod 1. Lunation 3. Session 7. Panorama 16:
        http://www.planetology.ru/panoramas/lunokhod1.php?page=13&language=english

        Conclusion:
        The terrain pictures with many granular features and rock details, clearly show much higher resemblance to contemporary/later rover missions to Mars/Moons/.. as they have been publicly presented. So we can safely conclude only two major possible scenarios are in the realm of possible. First, Apollo mission was staged or the second, namely the world simply adjusted in later decades into more professionally done (and science adhering) reenactments via the Soviet-Russian expertise.

        Case closed.

        • Putin’s secretary for interstellar office just mailed in the needed correction:
          For best viewing pleasures on the first mission it’s rather Panoramas #17+16..

  9. Dan says:

    Holy cow! Fast Ed I didn’t realize at first that you were having a breakdown. So many post you must be posting every hour constantly on the internet. It’s going to be ok. You didn’t expect to live forever did you? Breathe…breathe… get outside and relax

  10. Marco Bruciati says:

    Italia told or Euro bond today or Euro broken . Ultimatum

Comments are closed.