Today’s Energy Predicament – A Look at Some Charts

Today’s energy predicament is a strange situation that most modelers have never really considered. Let me explain some of the issues I see, using some charts.

[1] It is probably not possible to reduce current energy consumption by 80% or more without dramatically reducing population.

A glance at energy consumption per capita for a few countries suggests that cold countries tend to use a lot more energy per person than warm, wet countries.

Figure 1. Energy consumption per capita in 2019 in selected countries based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy.

This shouldn’t be a big surprise: Our predecessors in Africa didn’t need much energy. But as humans moved to colder areas, they needed extra warmth, and this required extra energy. The extra energy today is used to build sturdier homes and vehicles, to heat and operate those homes and vehicles, and to build the factories, roads and other structures needed to keep the whole operation going.

Saudi Arabia (not shown on Figure 1) is an example of a hot, dry country that uses a lot of energy. Its energy consumption per capita in 2019 (322 GJ per capita) was very close to that of Norway. It needs to keep its population cool, besides running its large oil operation.

If the entire world population could adopt the lifestyle of Bangladesh or India, we could indeed get our energy consumption down to a very low level. But this is difficult to do when the climate doesn’t cooperate. This means that if energy usage needs to fall dramatically, population will probably need to fall in areas where heating or air conditioning are essential for living.

[2] Many people think that “running out” of oil supplies should be our big worry. I believe that lack of the “demand” needed to keep oil and other energy prices up should be at least as big a worry.

The events of 2020 have shown us that a reduction in energy demand can occur very quickly, in ways we would not expect.

Oil demand can fall from less international trade, from fewer international air flights, and from fewer trips by commuters. Demand for electricity (made mostly with coal or natural gas) is likely to fall if fewer buildings are occupied. This will happen if universities offer courses only online, if nursing homes close for lack of residents who want to live there, or if young people move back with their parents for lack of jobs.

In some ways, the word “appetite” might be a better word than “demand.” Either high or low appetite can be a problem for people. People with excessive appetite tend to get fat; people with low appetite (perhaps as a side-effect of depression or of cancer treatments) can become frail.

Similarly, either high or low energy appetite can also be a problem for an economy. High appetite leads to high oil prices, as occurred back in 2008. These are distressing to oil consumers. Low appetite tends to lead to low energy prices. These are distressing to energy producers. They may cut back on production, as OPEC nations have done in the recent past, in an attempt to get prices back up. Some energy producers may file for bankruptcy.

Figure 2. Weekly average spot oil prices for Brent, based on data of the US Energy Information Administration.

Just as people can die from indirect effects of too little appetite, an economy can fail if it cannot keep its energy prices (appetite) up. In fact, an economy will probably collapse quite quickly if it cannot keep oil and other energy prices up. The cost of mining or otherwise extracting energy supplies tends to increase over time because the cheapest, easiest-to-extract supplies are taken first. The selling price of energy products needs to keep rising as well, in order for producers to be able to make a profit and, therefore, be able to continue production.

We know that historically, many economies have collapsed. Revelation 18:11-13 tells us that in the case of the collapse of ancient Babylon, the problem at the time of collapse was inadequate demand for the goods produced. There was not even demand for slaves, which was the type of energy available for purchase at that time. This lack of demand (or low appetite) is similar to the low oil price problem we are encountering today.

[3] The big reduction in energy appetite since mid-2008 has particularly affected the US, EU, and Japan. 

We would expect lower energy prices to eventually lead to a decline in energy production because producers will find production unprofitable. On a world basis, however, we don’t see this pattern occurring except during the Great Recession itself (Figure 3).

Figure 3. World per capita energy consumption, based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy. On a worldwide basis, energy production and consumption are virtually identical because storage is small compared to production and consumption.

Note that in Figure 3, energy consumption is on a “per capita” basis. This is because energy is required for making goods and services; the higher the population, the greater the quantity of goods and services required to maintain a given standard of living. If energy consumption per capita is rising, there is a good chance that living standards are rising.

The countries of the US, EU, and Japan have not been very successful in keeping their energy consumption per capita level since the big drop in oil prices in mid-2008.

Figure 4. Per capita energy consumption for the US, EU, and Japan, based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy.

The falling per capita energy consumption for the US, EU, and Japan is what one would expect if economic conditions were getting worse in these countries. For example, this pattern might be expected if young people are having difficulty finding jobs that pay well. It might also happen if repayment of debt starts interfering with young people being able to buy homes and cars. When fewer goods of these types are purchased, less energy consumption per capita is required.

The pattern of falling energy consumption per capita cannot continue for long without reaching a breaking point because people with low wages (or no jobs at all) will become more and more distressed. In fact, we started seeing an increasing number of demonstrations related to low wage levels, low pension levels, and lack of government services starting in 2019. This problem has only gotten worse with layoffs related to the pandemic in 2020. These layoffs corresponded to substantial further reduction in energy consumption per capita.

[4] China, India, and Vietnam are examples of countries whose energy consumption per capita has risen in recent years.

Not all countries have done as poorly as the major economies in recent years:

Figure 5. Some examples of countries with rising energy consumption per capita, based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy.

These Asian countries could outcompete the US, EU, and Japan in several ways:

  • Big undeveloped coal reserves. These resources could be used as an inexpensive fuel to compete with countries that had depleted their own coal resources. Coal tends to be less expensive than other types of energy, especially if pollution problems are ignored.
  • Warmer climate, so these countries did not need much fuel for heating. Even Southern China does not heat its buildings in winter.
  • Pollution was generally ignored.
  • New, more efficient factories could be built.
  • Lower wages because of
    • Milder climate
    • Inexpensive fuel supply
    • Lower medical costs
    • Lower standard of living

The developed economies were concerned about reducing their own CO2 emissions. Moving heavy industry to these Asian nations meant that the developed economies could benefit in three ways:

  1. Their own CO2 emissions would fall, whether or not world emissions fell.
  2. Pollution problems would be moved offshore.
  3. The cost of finished goods for consumers would be lower.

Moving heavy industry to these and other Asian countries meant the loss of jobs that had paid fairly well in the US, Europe, and Japan. While new jobs replaced the old jobs, they generally did not pay as well, leading to the falling energy consumption per capita pattern seen in Figure 4.

[5] The growing Asian economies in Figure 5 are now reaching coal limits.

While these economies were built on coal reserves, these reserves are becoming depleted. All three of the countries shown in Figure 5 have become net coal importers.

Figure 6. Coal production versus consumption in 2019 for China, India and Vietnam based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy.

[6] World coal production has remained on a bumpy plateau since 2011, suggesting that its extraction is reaching limits. (Figure 7)

Figure 7. World energy consumption by type, based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy. “Renewables” represents renewables other than hydroelectricity. Total world consumption is approximately equal to total world production, since stored amounts are small.

Figure 8, below, shows that growth in China’s coal production was the major reason for the big rise in world coal consumption between 2002 and 2011. In fact, this rise in production started immediately after China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.

Figure 8. World coal production by country based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy.

China’s rapid growth in coal production stopped in 2011. The problem was that extraction from an increasing share of coal mines became unprofitable: The cost of extraction rose but coal prices did not rise to match these higher costs. China could build new mines in locations more distant from where the coal was to be used, but transportation costs would tend to make this coal higher-cost as well. China could increase its coal consumption by importing coal, but that would also be more expensive.

Figure 9. Coal production for selected areas based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy.

In Figure 9, above, we see how dramatically higher China’s coal production has been, in comparison to coal production in other areas of the world. After China’s coal production stalled about 2011, it bounced back in 2018 and 2019 as the country opened mines in the north of the country, farther from industrial use.

Figure 9 indicates that the US’s coal production was on a long plateau between 1990 and 2008; more recently, the US’s production has fallen. Coal production for Europe was falling even before 1981, but the data available for this chart only goes back to 1981. Declining production again results from the cost of production rising above the prices producers could obtain from selling the coal.

Whether or not world coal production will increase in the future remains to be seen. Normally, a person would expect a long bumpy plateau in coal production, such as the world has experienced since 2011, to precede a fall in production. This would be similar to the pattern observed in the US’s coal production. This pattern would also be similar to the shape modeled by geophysicist M. King Hubbert for many types of resource production.

Figure 10. M. King Hubbert symmetric curve from Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels.

[7] World oil production through 2019 has continued upward in an amazingly steady pattern, despite low prices. Its major problem has been unprofitability for producers. 

Figure 7 above shows the total amount of oil produced has continued upward in almost a straight line, except for a dip at the time of the Great Recession.

In fact, every person needs goods and services made with energy products. Rising energy consumption per capita will mean that, on average, every person is getting the benefit of more energy supplies. Figure 11 shows information similar to that on Figure 7, except on a per-capita basis.

Figure 11. World per capita energy consumption by type based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy. Total world consumption is approximately equal to total world production, since stored amounts are small.

Figure 11 indicates that on a per capita basis, oil supply has been approximately flat. In a way, this should not be surprising. Oil is absolutely essential in many ways. It is used for agriculture, transportation and construction. Oil is also used for its chemical properties in medicines, herbicides, pesticides, lubricants, and many other products. Oil is very energy dense and can be easily stored.

Because of its special properties, many people have assumed that oil prices will always rise. We saw in Figure 2 that this doesn’t actually happen. Low prices have continued for long enough now that they are becoming a serious problem for producers. Many companies are seeking bankruptcy. One analysis shows that 230 oil and gas producers and 214 oilfield services companies have filed for bankruptcy since 2015.

Oil exporters find their countries in financial difficulty, because at low prices, the taxes that they can collect are not sufficient to maintain the programs needed for their people. If the programs cannot be maintained, citizens may become unhappy and revolt.

At this point, oil production during 2020 is down. Figure 12 shows OPEC’s estimate of oil production through July 2020. World oil production is reported to be down about 12%. The highest month of supply was about November 2018.

Figure 12. OPEC and world oil production, in a chart made by OPEC, from the August 2020 OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report.

Figure 13 shows oil production for selected areas of the world through 2019.

Figure 13. Oil production for selected areas of the world based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy. Europe includes Norway. Russia+ is the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Middle East production tends to bounce up and down. If prices are low, the tendency is to reduce production, as occurred in 2019.

US production rose rapidly between 2008 and 2019, but dipped in 2016, as prices dropped way too low.

Europe’s oil production (including Norway) reached its highest point in the year 2000. It has been declining since then, causing concern for governments.

The production of what I call Russia+ dropped with the collapse of the central government of the Soviet Union in 1991. Oil prices had been very low between 1981 and 1991. It appears to me that these low prices were instrumental in the collapse of the central government of the Soviet Union. Production was able to rise again in the early 2000s when prices rose. My concern now is that a similar collapse will happen for some oil exporters in the next few years, due to low prices, and it will lead to a major decline of world oil production.

[8] Natural gas is the fuel that seems to be available in abundant supply, if only the price could be made to rise to a high enough level for producers. 

Natural gas production can be seen to be rising on both Figures 7 and 11. The fact that natural gas consumption is rising on a per capita basis in Figure 11 indicates that production is rising robustly–enough to offset weakness in coal production and perhaps help increase the world standard of living, to some extent.

We can see from Figure 14 below that the increase in natural gas production is coming from quite a number of different areas, including the US, Russia and its affiliates, the Middle East, and Australia. Again, Europe (including Norway) seems to be in decline.

Figure 14. Natural gas production for selected areas of the world based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy. Europe includes Norway. Russia+ is the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The problem for natural gas is again a price problem. It is difficult to get the price up to a high enough level to cover the cost of both the extraction of natural gas and the infrastructure and fuel needed to transport the natural gas to its destination.

We used to talk about “stranded natural gas,” that is, natural gas that can be extracted, but whose cost of transportation is simply too high to make the overall transaction economic. In fact, historically, a lot of natural gas has simply been burned off as a waste product (flared) or re-injected into oil wells, to keep up pressure, because there was no hope of selling it profitably at a distance. It is this formerly stranded natural gas that is now being produced.

Figure 15. Historical natural gas prices based on data from BP’s 2020 Statistical Review of World Energy. LNG is liquefied natural gas transported by ship. German imported natural gas is mostly by pipeline. US Henry Hub gas is natural gas without overseas transport costs included.

The increase in investment in natural gas production in recent years has been based on the hope that prices would rise high enough to cover both the cost of extraction and transportation. In fact, prices have tended to fall with crude oil prices, making the overall price far too low for most natural gas producers. Prices in 2020 have been even lower. For example, recent Japan LNG prices have been about $4 per million Btu. Thus, natural gas seems to have exactly the same problem as coal and oil: Prices are far too low for producers.

[9] The world economy is a self-organizing system, powered by energy. It can be expected to behave in a very strange way when diminishing returns become too much of a problem. 

In the language of physics, the world economy is a dissipative structure. This has been known at least since 1996. The economy is a self-organizing system powered by energy; it is not possible to significantly reduce energy consumption without a major collapse.

The economy has many parts to it. I have illustrated the situation in the following way:

The fact that consumers are also employees means that if wages fall too low (for a significant share of the population), then consumption will also tend to fall too low.

Prices are set by the market. Contrary to the popular view, prices are not based primarily on scarcity. Instead, they are based on the quantity of finished goods and services that consumers in the aggregate can afford. If wage disparity gets to be too great a problem, commodity prices of all types will tend to fall too low.

[10] Economists and modelers of all kinds have completely misunderstood how the economy actually operates.

Our academic communities each seem to exist in separate ivory towers. Economists don’t talk to physicists. Physicists know that dissipative structures cannot last indefinitely. Humans are dissipative structures; they each have limited lifetimes. Hurricanes are also dissipative structures that last only a limited time.

Most economists and modelers have never considered the possibility that today’s economy, like that of ancient Babylon, could be reaching collapse because of low demand, and thus, low prices.

Economists don’t realize that once energy resources become too depleted, energy prices are not likely to rise high enough for producers to make a profit; instead, the overall system will tend to collapse. Central banks have been trying, without success, to get commodity prices up to the point where they can be profitable for producers, but they have not been successful to date. I am doubtful that even more new tricks, such as Universal Basic Income, will work, either.

The erroneous belief systems of most economists and modelers leads to all kinds of strange results. The economy is modeled as if it will grow indefinitely. Most modelers assume that if we have oil, coal, or natural gas in the ground, plus the technical capability to pull these resources out, we will eventually pull them out. Perhaps a later civilization, built on the remains of our current civilization, can do this, but our current civilization cannot.

Climate change models are applied to fossil fuel assumptions that are absurdly high, given the problems with low energy prices that we are currently encountering. No one stops to model what will happen to the climate if fossil fuel consumption is decreased very quickly, which seems to be a real possibility in 2020. The loss of aerosol emissions (smog, for example) from fossil fuels will tend to spike world temperatures, even with reduced CO2 emissions from fossil fuels.

We are led to believe that an economy similar to today’s economy can operate solely on renewables. This is simply absurd. Figures 7 and 11 show that there are nowhere near enough renewables to support today’s population, even if substitution were possible for fossil fuels. In fact, we need fossil fuels to make and maintain solar panels, wind turbines, electric transmission lines, hydroelectric plants, and nuclear power plants.

If we cannot keep fossil fuels operating because of continued low prices, today’s economy can expect a disturbing change for the worse.

This entry was posted in Financial Implications, Introductory Post and tagged , , , by Gail Tverberg. Bookmark the permalink.

About Gail Tverberg

My name is Gail Tverberg. I am an actuary interested in finite world issues - oil depletion, natural gas depletion, water shortages, and climate change. Oil limits look very different from what most expect, with high prices leading to recession, and low prices leading to financial problems for oil producers and for oil exporting countries. We are really dealing with a physics problem that affects many parts of the economy at once, including wages and the financial system. I try to look at the overall problem.

2,036 thoughts on “Today’s Energy Predicament – A Look at Some Charts

  1. This arrived in my mail box, relevant part for students.

    Students need to take boards after graduation to get a license to practice dentistry, without a license the $200K dental school tuition is worthless. Dentistry is a perishable skill, fresh out of school a student’s hold on that knowledge is tenuous, boards are examinations on the basic aspects of dentistry, taking them after a six month or more break will be a challenge. Patients are obtained while in school, a network. In WI boards are apparently on hold or probably regional boards are on hold.

    This is incredible hardship on the students, they have huge loans, they have no way to obtain a license to practice dentistry; the kludge is a temporary license, without the permanent license it is a bridge to nowhere.

    As this is a public document, I copied the entire email omitting parts not relevant,

    “Dear DSPS Credential Holder:
    As you know, Wisconsin continues to deal with COVID-19, and we are experiencing high levels of disease activity in nearly all 72 counties. This ongoing, pervasive presence of disease has prompted some limits on mass gatherings, such as testing events, and has discouraged, delayed, or prevented examinations that cannot be conducted with masks or while maintaining physical distance between individuals. These delays in exams are preventing recent graduates from entering practice and may be creating difficulties for patients seeking dental care in some communities.

    In an effort to expand access to care and practice, the Dental Examining Board passed an emergency rule, which was signed by the governor on July 17, 2020, allowing recent graduates to obtain a temporary license. Please review the rule for exact details, such as eligibility and application process, on Wisconsin temporary licenses for dentists and dental hygienists. ”

    This new guidance, which is available on the DHS website, covers a range of issues related to the provision of dental health care. It includes recommendation on staff health screening, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), patient pre-screening, patient registration and reception, on-site patient screening, modifications to the provision of care, exposure management, engineering controls (e.g. HVAC systems), environmental infection control (e.g. cleaning and disinfection), and more.”…



    Dawn B. Crim

    Secretary-designee” End DHS email to license dentists.

    Note the HVAC concerns, done right I assume this would be on the level of an OR in a hospital – that is hugely expensive. Given the noted 2x increase in disease in eating out which also involves HVAC, this is no small matter and is probably a valid concern.

    For patients, where do they get care? How do they get care? Dentists blow stuff all over the room and one would assume into HVAC ducts.

    When a vaccine is available, a good guess is not taking it as a dentist will put one’s license on hold.

    Not trivial for the dentist, not trivial for the patient.

    Dennis L.

    • I am guessing that the number of dentists needed in the future will be down. People will still go to a dentist when there is a clear emergency, and perhaps even for teeth cleaning. But they will not go to get their teeth whitened, when they are wearing a mask all of the time, and communicating mostly over Zoom.

      Admittedly, the situation will vary from place to place. I don’t have a lot of hope regarding the vaccine doing very much, very quickly. Med Page Today had an article up this morning called, Getting Real on COVID-19 Vaccine Timeline

      Some excerpts:

      Distribution figures to be an even bigger obstacle. The leading vaccine candidates would have to be shipped and stored at temperatures ranging from -20 to -70 °C. These conditions are not readily available at the scale needed, Bar-Zeev said. According to the IFPMA technical sheet, “This could be a challenge going forwards in terms of distribution.”

      Once manufacturing and distribution are complete, Americans would still not be safe from the disease, experts cautioned. The vaccines are unlikely to protect against shedding, Offit said; vaccinated people may still get mild or asymptomatic infections, and thus shed the virus and possibly spread it to others. “People who are vaccinated still need to wear masks and that’s going to be a hard message to send,” Offit said. “You may take a step backwards.”

      Said Bar-Zeev: “The community expects this is going to go away when we have a vaccine, and it might not.”

    • “For patients, where do they get care? How do they get care?”

      That’s my situation at the moment. My dental office has been closed after a patient of this office contact traced their way back to the office. Every employee was apparently tested for Covid 19, but this is an ongoing situation. The office is not making appointments.

  2. Also from ZeroHedge: PA Governor’s COVID-19 Restrictions Ruled Unconstitutional By Federal Judge

    Democratic Pennsylvania Governor Tom Wolf’s pandemic restrictions – including a requirement that “non-life-sustaining” businesses were to shut down – has been ruled unconstitutional by a federal judge.

    US District Judge William Stickman IV, a Trump appointee, ruled on Monday in a 66-page opinion that the restrictions were overreaching, arbitrary, and violated citizens’ constitutional rights. Plaintiffs in the case include hair salons, a farmer’s market vendor, a horse trainer drive-in movie theaters, and several GOP lawmakers, according to 6ABC.

    The ruling means that the current restrictions – including limitations on the size of all gatherings, cannot be enforced. . .

    Kensinger noted that Monday’s order does not apply to the mandatory mask order or the mandatory work-from-home order.

    This will be appealed, and it doesn’t apply outside of Pennsylvania.

  3. Say WHAT?????
    Sunday marked two months since Prime Minister Scott Morrison introduced a cap of just under 4,000 international arrivals per week. He made the move in response to the country’s second coronavirus wave, which was sparked by a hotel quarantine security scandal.
    The cap has resulted in a barrage and backlog of canceled flights, with ticket prices skyrocketing.
    The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) says at least 25,000 Australians, many of who are financially and medically vulnerable, have registered their need to come home since July. However, the Board of Airline Representatives of Australia estimates the true number of those stranded is closer to 100,000.

    This s CrAzY…Whatever…reflects the clueless decisions being directive

    • Australia seems to have gotten a second peak of new cases that is bigger than its first, after getting the case level down very low.

      Even more amazing, its death rate is higher this time around.

      The ratios to cases are amazingly high:

      • It was a mild flu season in Aus last year, so there were lots of old people who on average would have died last year, but carried on into this year.

        Almost all of the second wave deaths have been in VIC during its winter. The first wave hit late summer/autumn. VIC has a different climate to most of the rest of Australia with a northern hemisphere-like winter, whereas NSW, QLD etc are warm in winter, daily average >18C with plenty of sunshine.

        Also the virus mutates, so maybe it evolved then hit VIC again, but harder.

        It will be interesting to see what happens to countries that had successful hard lockdowns come the northern winter. The lockdowns may have stopped community immunity from developing, so they could get hit again.


    ‘First Mover: As Central Banks Print $1.4B an Hour, Bitcoiners Bet on Federal Reserve ‘Capture’

    “The Federal Reserve is buying $80 billion of U.S. Treasurys a month to keep markets afloat, with trillions of dollars more available through emergency-lending programs. The central bank’s balance sheet already has expanded this year by about $3 trillion to $7.1 trillion as of last week.

    “The market has just become too reliant on the Fed being there,” Brian Coulton, chief economist for the sovereign group at the bond-rating firm Fitch, said last week in a phone interview.”

    “Imagine how consumers might rein in spending if the stock market tumbled 23%, as it did in the final quarter of 2008. In economics, there’s a psychological concept known as the “wealth effect,” where consumers spend more if the value of their assets rise, even if their income doesn’t change.”

  5. “As the world reels from the fiscal shockwaves of Covid-19, a new 26-country survey suggests that many people are perilously unprepared for a major economic jolt.

    “According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s 2020 International Survey of Adult Financial Literacy, 42% of the 125,787 adults polled reported worrying about meeting everyday expenses; 40% were concerned about their financial situation; and 37% reported they were just getting by.”

  6. If anyone here still thinks the reaction of governments to covid-19 was warranted, or that any kind of restrictions are still necessary, this video ought to change your mind:

    • Interesting video by Ivor Cummins on the absurdity of the recent COVID approach.

      He doesn’t see the number of deaths as being particularly out of the ordinary, when we consider the low deaths a year ago because of a lower than usual number of flu deaths in 2018, leaving more vulnerable individuals alive.

      He believes that there are really two different patterns involved: (a) A northern climate Gompertz curve pattern, and (b) a flatter southern climate pattern. The US Northeast follows the Gompertz curve, and to some extent the Midwest also. The US West and South follows the flatter southern climate pattern.

      He feels that masks and lockdowns do basically nothing, and shows several slides to show this (including the one above):

      In the UK, pubs were opened on June 29, without masks or much distancing. There was no uptick in deaths following this.

      He points out that summer is normally a time when viruses can circulate without causing much real illness. Immunity tends to build up, reducing the potential impact the next winter. Immunity is high (High level D?), so there is not much real damage of this spread. Death rates don’t spike.

      His concern is that we may be suppressing death rates in the summer, when the virus can fairly safely spread, making next winter’s death rate worse.

  7. “Economists warn of US ‘wasteland’ without stimulus deal – Hopes fade for $1tn or more in government aid for workers, businesses and local governments…

    “The diminished chances of additional fiscal support have caused many economists to fret that the US rebound will lose steam in later 2020 or early 2021, creating a drag on the global economy as it tries to recover from the worst contraction since the second world war.”

  8. “A Treasuries arbitrage strategy favored by hedge funds has fallen into near-hibernation, threatening liquidity in the world’s largest debt market…

    “The fate of the trade has crucial implications for the $20 trillion Treasury market, with the Federal Reserve already buying billions of dollars of U.S. obligations to keep it functioning smoothly.”

    • “The debt treadmill that is the United States Treasury market is overheating. If you look closely, you can see the engine smoking now. Of course, the streets are littered with the bodies of traders that called the bond market top and lost.

      “Nevertheless, here I’ll try to make the case from a mathematical standpoint that the US Treasury market could implode at any time now, and that only one final trigger is needed.”

      • This is a very concerning article. I am afraid this fellow is right. The US needs to do more long-term borrowing, if it wants to finance more stimulus. It cannot do that, without raising long-term interest rates. It has been attempting to use short-term debt to fund its recent activities, but it is maxed out on this.

        If the Treasury cannot figure a way out of this, the market could implode. The US$ could lose its reserve currency status.

        • So many holders of $’s and US treasuries are foreign nations, which stand to lose out directly from a catastrophic blow-up in the US treasuries market (and indirectly via weakened US consumers and general financial instability), that I wonder if there might be some concerted and perhaps discreet effort by foreign central banks to help prop the Fed up.

          • Another thought is a change in retirement plan requirements. Some sort of treasuries will be used to fund these, instead of current funding. The other securities can then be swapped out and bought by the central bank.

      • Ah another shiny rock fan forecasting imminent doom for treasuries. The fed will buy every last one if needed. They are buying all sorts of junk paper not allowed by their charter under emergency powers or some such. Until we see some inflation the ponzi continues.

  9. The Vatican has renewed its ‘secret’ deal with CCP, which is controversial as CCP is cracking down on religions, especially the Uighurs but also Christians. It is Sinicizing all religions into versions that are friendly to CCP, that promote CCP and its ‘core socialist values’. And it is stopping their spread.

    RCC is pragmatic and it adapts to the prevailing political conditions. It nows concurrently maintains two adapted versions of Christianity, ‘liberal Christianity’ in the West and ‘Christianity with Chinese characteristics’ in China. Anone who thinks that RCC would not deal with states that are not liberal democratic has not been paying attention.

    RCC adapts to survive. States tolerate religions in so far as they can order them to their own objectives and values, otherwise they clamp down on them. RCC was banned for centuries in Britain until it accepted a minority status without pretensions on the state.

    The alternative would be for CCP to fully unleash its intolerance on RCC and perhaps to entirely eradicate it in China, leaving only the ‘CCP Catholic church’. CCP is not messing about with religions and dissident RC could easily all end up in education camps.

    Nevertheless it remains a controversial deal as some would rather that RC in China went the way of ‘heroic martyrdom’. RCC does not see it like that. It wants to continue to function in China rather than to go down in a ‘last hoorah’. It is a church that wants to endure.

    > Pope gives green light for extension of accord with Beijing

    VATICAN CITY (Reuters) – Pope Francis has signed off on a two-year extension of a deal with China on the appointment of bishops that critics have condemned as a sell-out to the communist government, a senior Vatican source said on Monday.

    … China’s constitution guarantees religious freedom, but in recent years the government has tightened restrictions on religions seen as a challenge to the authority of the ruling Communist Party.

    Critics say this has made the deal a farce. The Vatican says no deal would have risked causing a schism in the Church in China.

    One of the most outspoken critics has been Cardinal Joseph Zen, the former archbishop of Hong Kong, who has accused the Vatican of selling out and offending the memory of persecuted Catholics.

    Beijing has been following a policy of “Sinicisation” of religion, trying to root out foreign influences and enforce obedience to the Communist Party, which has ruled China since winning a civil war in 1949.

    • Not a new situation for the RCC. They’re pretty good at playing the long game. How many thousand years do you suppose the CCP will last?

      The Vatican has formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan. For years, observers have expected them to switch diplomatic recognition to China, but for some reason it keeps not happening. Yay?

      • Yes, the CCP is doomed. But the Middle Kingdom used to be very good at playing the long game, and perhaps the next dynasty will revive the old traditions of prudence, respect, and making haste slowly.

      • RCC has proved extraordinarily resilient hitherto but it is not without its weaknesses. In particular its characteristic centralisation to a single locality, Rome, makes it vulnerable. It all depends what happens in Italy, which has a completely collapsed fertility rate of 1. 3 and the number of births would fall to just 15% over four generations. I suppose that the papacy could move to somewhere else did Italy become hostile but whether that would prove unifying and sustainable in the same way would remain to be seen.

        Could CCP survive de-industrialisation? Industrialisation is its raison d’etre. I suppose it could keep the name and some of the ideology. No crystal balls?

        • Perhaps it is not that remarkable, religions generally tend to be resilient, which is why they are all so old. Obviously the Orthodox church is just as old as RCC. National churches have also proved resilient, eg. the Lutheran churches and the Anglican. Off hand I cannot think of any historical church that has shut down. Obviously circumstances would be radically altered after collapse, so ‘no crystal balls’.

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